Enzyme assisted extraction methods for skincare products
- Enzymes break down the plant’s cell walls for improved extraction.
- The enzymes can be used to target the desired compounds, which will greatly improve the skincare product performance.
- No other extraction methods produces higher yields, and a broader range of compounds, than enzyme, assisted extracts.
- Enzymes require water to be activated.
- Alcohol kills (denatures) enzymes, so the tincture method will not work with enzymes.
- Tinctures (alcohol based) concentrations are typically less than 1%.
- Water and glycerin are the best solvents to use in conjunction with enzymes.
- -Water is the number one solvent for pharmaceuticals, glycerin is number two.
- -Glycerin, a highly viscous liquid, has the ability to hold large quantities of compounds making for very strong solutions.
- Different plants and plant parts require different enzymes for extraction.
- Enzymes are natural products made up of amino acids, so they will not produce hazardous byproducts during extraction.
- Enzymes have been used in other industries for years: food processing, agriculture, feed production, pulp and paper, textile industry, laundry, cleaning industry, etc.
- Enzymes can improve yields on:
- Wide variety of compounds
- Alkaloids, polyphenols, flavonoids
- Amino Acids
ENZYME ASSISTED EXTRACTION COMPARED TO OTHER METHODS
- Are alcohol-based.
- Strong in the medicinal market.
- Should be avoided in cosmetic products.
- Consumers have a strong dislike for alcohol in cosmetic products.
- Often not disclosed to consumers who use the cosmetic product.
- Denatures (kill) the bioactive plant properties.
- Highly non-polar.
- Excellent for oils, won’t extract the bioactive plant properties like proteins, peptide, enzymes, amino acids, and water-soluble vitamins.
- Solid presence in the CBD market.
The mode of action of hydrolytic enzymes on the extraction of phenolics is by cleaving the cell wall components, thus favoring the exposure of phenolics to the extraction. Li et al. (2006) observed a 28% increase in the concentration of phenolic compounds extracted
Breaking the cell wall makes lipids accessible to the extraction solvent that improves the extraction efficiency. Plant oils are commonly used in food, detergent, and paint industries. Plant oils with a higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential in food industries. Conventionally, plant oils have been extracted using solvent extraction where hexane is a commonly and commercially used solvent. However, hexane causes many environmental concerns. Hence, aqueous extraction methods are better alternatives to organic solvent extraction. Although aqueous extraction is an environmentally cleaner technique, it is not successful due to the lower oil yields (Rosenthal et al.1996). This limitation can be overcome using enzymatic treatment during aqueous extraction of oils (Badr and Sitohy1992). Moreover, it is also beneficial to the simultaneous extraction of oils and proteins (Jiang et al.2010; Hanmoungjai et al.2002. Latif and Anwar (2011) used enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction to obtain oil and protein from sesame seeds using a mixture of enzymes. This extraction technique not only enhanced the yield of oil but also improved the quality of oils extracted. Oxidative stability, antioxidant activity, and tocopherol profile of sesame seed oil obtained after enzymatic extraction were better than that obtained after hexane extraction.
Among all the bioactive, proteins are most important as a nutritional and dietary supplement. Various methods of extraction and fractionation of protein and peptides are available, but the choice of method depends on several factors such as solubility, hydrophobicity, molecular weight, and isoelectric point (pI). Efficient and optimized techniques must be used to remove interfering compounds such as lipids, phenolics, carbohydrates, oxidative enzymes, and pigments without protein degradation or modification. The presence of indigenous proteases in plant tissue makes the extraction of proteins complicated (Wang et al.2008). Proteins are usually found in protein bodies (also called as aleurone grains) inside the cells. Hence, the complete solubilization and extraction of proteins depend on cell disruption. Commercially produced protein concentrates usually consist of aqueous solubilization of protein, thus making water as a solvent of choice for extraction. The extraction yield of protein can further be increased by using enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction of proteins.
PROTEINS AND OILS
Simultaneous recovery of protein and lipids using enzyme-assisted extraction method is gaining attraction due to dual benefits. Protease has been used for simultaneous recovery of protein and oil from extruded soybean flakes using enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction method (Moura et al.2008). The yield of oil was 96%, whereas that of protein was 85%. Niu et al. (2012) used the same technique for extraction of rapeseed oil and protein from dehulled cold-pressed double-low rapeseed cake. They obtained 82.10% yield of protein and 71.89%yield of oil. (1)
Enzymes have been used to increase flavonoid release from plant material while minimizing the use of solvents and heat.
STEPS INVOLVED IN MADE-TO-ORDER EXTRACTS
We don’t believe in the concept of a “one fits all” approach.
Virtually every cosmetic brand has different needs and customer bases.
- The customer identifies the plant of interest.
- Customer lets us know what the extract will be used for such as: anti-aging, elastin and collagen regeneration, eczema, acne, rosacea, psoriasis, etc.
- We research and develop a game-plan determining which compounds will meet the customers goals. Then we formulate a plan on how to extract those compounds such as proteins, peptides, natural vitamins and minerals, oils, polyphenols, alkaloids, etc.